Miseries faced by humanity due to two World Wars in the first half of twentieth century compelled the world leaders to create international organizations in order to avoid conflicts, promote social and economic progress, and ensure human right and human dignity, and United Nation was one of the organizations established on 24th October, 1945 to achieve some of these goals. One of the basic aim for which United Nations (UN) was created is to maintain international peace and security. The Security Council is the United Nations' most powerful body, with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security." There are five permanent members of Security Council of UN and ten non-permanent member of Security Council. Non-permanent members are elected for two years. Each of the five permanent members i.e.China,France,Russia, United Kingdom (UK) and United States of America (USA) are equipped with veto power to turn down any proposal for consideration in Security Council. All these five countries who are permanent members of Security Council jointly fought against the Axes Power and defeated them during Second World War.
After more than half a century, global geo-political scenario has changed considerably. Bipolar world after Second World War became a uni-polar world after disintegration ofSoviet Union. However, new powers are emerging inAsia. Crisis over South China Sea, prolonged conflicts in West Asia and Africa, and terrorism inSouth Asianecessitate an effective role of UN Security Council in resolving these issues peacefully and amicably. But, UN has not been able to fulfil expectations of global community in achieving the desired result in this direction.
Some of the countries of axes power such asGermanyandJapanmade rapid economic progress after war and reconstruction, and contributed to social and economic development of developing and least developed countries through generous aid.
Similarly,Indiahas been one of the biggest contributors of peacekeeping troops, and made a lot of sacrifices of its people in both World Wars while fighting on behalf ofBritain. About 1,50,000 soldiers of united India died in World war I and World War II. History is evidence thatIndiahas never invaded any country in past. Moreover,Indiais second largest country in terms of population and seventh largest economy by nominal GDP and third largest in PPP with highest growth rate at present.
Brazilis fifth largest country in world and largest country inSouth America.Brazilhas been selected 10 times member of Security Council and has contributed to peacekeeping operation.
Though number of members of UN has increased from 53 since its formation in 1945 to 193 at present; but, the number and powers of permanent members of Security Council have remained unchanged. Considering the growth of members of UN, changing global geopolitical scenario, changing economic and military profile of some of the emerging countries and need for more democratic governance in UN and more specifically in Security Council, number of permanent seats in Security Council needs to be expanded with same powers which existing permanent members have. In this scenario,India,Japan,GermanyandBrazilare most eligible claimant for permanent seat in Security Council. If security council is not reformed and new claimants of permanent membership are not inducted in Security Council, they may resort to formation of an alternative organization for cooperative security and peace building. In case, if this happens, UN will lose its importance in due course of time.