Reservations in government jobs and admission in educational institution has been provided to some reserve category based on caste after independence. This was initially provided for a limited period of ten years to give opportunity to Schedule Caste (SC) and Schedule Tribes (ST) candidates to improve their scoio-economic status. However, it has gone not only in perpetuity, but has taken in its ambit other groups such as other backward classes(OBC), and many more groups are striving to be a part of these reserved group. Though, it is duty of government to strike a balance between efficiency and equity in governance for balanced development of society, but, the reservation in jobs and education miserably failed in bringing needed societal changes and balanced development of reserved categories even after more than half a century of implementation of reservation. Moreover, especially in government job it reduced the efficiency of government functioning as in a networked group minimum efficiency of an individual determines the efficiency of the group. The main malady of this policy was that particular members of few families of schedule castes and schedule tribes especially got benefited from reservation again and again.
Government should come out with different policy on upliftment of SC, ST and OBC. The main reason for their underdevelopment is educational backwardness due to their economic incapability. The government should address free of cost education for deserving candidates of these reserved categories. Some of the measures which government should consider to implement are as follows:
This will be a more holistic model and will be able to provide education to more children of reserved categories without further creating a divided society among schedule caste, schedule tribes and OBCs.
Water is one of the most important resources required for survival of human being, animals and plants. Freshwater is very tiny percentage of total water resources available in glaciers, rivers, lakes, underground aquifers, and as a moisture content in soil and air. With growing population and related economic activities, requirements of freshwater is increasing day by day. With careless economic activities , freshwater is not only being consumed at faster rate, but, the same is being degraded also that is reducing the freshwater availability suitable for use, and thus putting extra burden on available freshwater resources. Moreover, climate change is causing changing pattern of rainfall in place, time and intensity that virtually reduces the fresh water availability to suitable for consumption of human or animal settlements and many related economic activities. Moreover, water is a global issue and many freshwaterbodies and resources are shared by multiple countries and If water is not managed properly, its scarcity will lead to mass migration and in-turn interstate and intra-state war for water.