Miseries faced by humanity due to two World Wars in the first half of twentieth century compelled the world leaders to create international organizations in order to avoid conflicts, promote social and economic progress, and ensure human right and human dignity, and United Nation was one of the organizations established on 24th October, 1945 to achieve some of these goals. One of the basic aim for which United Nations (UN) was created is to maintain international peace and security. The Security Council is the United Nations' most powerful body, with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security." There are five permanent members of Security Council of UN and ten non-permanent member of Security Council. Non-permanent members are elected for two years. Each of the five permanent members i.e.China,France,Russia, United Kingdom (UK) and United States of America (USA) are equipped with veto power to turn down any proposal for consideration in Security Council. All these five countries who are permanent members of Security Council jointly fought against the Axes Power and defeated them during Second World War.
After more than half a century, global geo-political scenario has changed considerably. Bipolar world after Second World War became a uni-polar world after disintegration ofSoviet Union. However, new powers are emerging inAsia. Crisis over South China Sea, prolonged conflicts in West Asia and Africa, and terrorism inSouth Asianecessitate an effective role of UN Security Council in resolving these issues peacefully and amicably. But, UN has not been able to fulfil expectations of global community in achieving the desired result in this direction.
Some of the countries of axes power such asGermanyandJapanmade rapid economic progress after war and reconstruction, and contributed to social and economic development of developing and least developed countries through generous aid.
Similarly,Indiahas been one of the biggest contributors of peacekeeping troops, and made a lot of sacrifices of its people in both World Wars while fighting on behalf ofBritain. About 1,50,000 soldiers of united India died in World war I and World War II. History is evidence thatIndiahas never invaded any country in past. Moreover,Indiais second largest country in terms of population and seventh largest economy by nominal GDP and third largest in PPP with highest growth rate at present.
Brazilis fifth largest country in world and largest country inSouth America.Brazilhas been selected 10 times member of Security Council and has contributed to peacekeeping operation.
Though number of members of UN has increased from 53 since its formation in 1945 to 193 at present; but, the number and powers of permanent members of Security Council have remained unchanged. Considering the growth of members of UN, changing global geopolitical scenario, changing economic and military profile of some of the emerging countries and need for more democratic governance in UN and more specifically in Security Council, number of permanent seats in Security Council needs to be expanded with same powers which existing permanent members have. In this scenario,India,Japan,GermanyandBrazilare most eligible claimant for permanent seat in Security Council. If security council is not reformed and new claimants of permanent membership are not inducted in Security Council, they may resort to formation of an alternative organization for cooperative security and peace building. In case, if this happens, UN will lose its importance in due course of time.
Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi is in India on 8th June 2014 to improve Sino-India relation. Perhaps, he will discuss the India visit of President Xi Jinping also to further improve relations. Modi has already accepted Japanese Prime Minister Abe Shinzo's invitation to vist Japan in July this year. US President Obama's invitation has also been accepted by Modi and he is likely to visit in September this year. All these three countries who are trying to cozing up their relations with new government in India led by Modi are great economic power and two of them i.e. US and China are strong military power. US and Japan are aligned and thay have their own joint security and strategic arrangements. Now it is to see which way Modi government leans. Is it towards US-Japan axis or towards China or maintain equidistance from all the three and maintainging only business relations. However, unlike many other head of Governments, Modi has displayed a unique diplomatic sign by choosing Bhutan as his first foregn visit as Prime Minister of India,
As far as Modi is concerned, he believes that if India has to get a respectful place among comity of powerful nations, it has to make rapid economic progress. And for economic development and progress, peace is an essential requirements and more so with neighbors. Similarly, China also must be aware of this fact that any confrontation or armed conflict may also spoil its ambition to become number one economic power in the world, because history is testimony that whoever plunged in war have lost their position even after winning the war. Therefore, both India and China would appreciate that this is not the proper time to dig up the old embarrassing issues rather to collaborate and cooperate for mutual benefits. As far as Japan is concerned, it will always try to rope in India against China to contain China in order to be in advantageous position in its relation with China. As far as US is concerned, it also does not want a strong China which could undermine its position in Asia and Pacific region, and it will try to prop up India against China, that will not be in over all interest of India and China. If India and China come under confrontation, the western power led by US will again try to hold their grip on Asia and would try to make its colony economically. Arms trade and possible future FDI by US defence manufacturing companies in India should not be seen in terms of strategic cooperation between India and US as it is compulsion of these two countries to come together to fulfill their mutual interest, as India is in dire need of getting defence technology, and US has to save its defence production units by providing them market. Now it is to see how India under leadership of Modi handle these three powerful nation and work cautiously to best of its advantage.