Reservations in government jobs and admission in educational institution has been provided to some reserve category based on caste after independence. This was initially provided for a limited period of ten years to give opportunity to Schedule Caste (SC) and Schedule Tribes (ST) candidates to improve their scoio-economic status. However, it has gone not only in perpetuity, but has taken in its ambit other groups such as other backward classes(OBC), and many more groups are striving to be a part of these reserved group. Though, it is duty of government to strike a balance between efficiency and equity in governance for balanced development of society, but, the reservation in jobs and education miserably failed in bringing needed societal changes and balanced development of reserved categories even after more than half a century of implementation of reservation. Moreover, especially in government job it reduced the efficiency of government functioning as in a networked group minimum efficiency of an individual determines the efficiency of the group. The main malady of this policy was that particular members of few families of schedule castes and schedule tribes especially got benefited from reservation again and again.
Government should come out with different policy on upliftment of SC, ST and OBC. The main reason for their underdevelopment is educational backwardness due to their economic incapability. The government should address free of cost education for deserving candidates of these reserved categories. Some of the measures which government should consider to implement are as follows:
- Those persons who have once got reservation benefits once in government jobs, their children including descendents should not get reservations in government job. This will provide opportunity to get government job to those members of other SC, ST and OBC families who have never got government service. Thus, opportunity will be better dispersed in deprived society.
- The above should apply to people of reserved categories who pays income tax.
- There should be no reservation in promotion.
- There should not be any compromise in merit for reserved category in selection of job. This means that reservation in government job should not post wise, but total number of government post. And they should be provided at any category based on their merit.
- Free and compulsory primary education must be provided to all the children of 5 years and above of reserved category except children of those who are either in government job or income tax payer. Free education means that they should be provided free lodging, boarding, medical facilities. free books, free clothes etc so that during their primary education they are fully economically independent on their parents.
- Top 50 percent students who have completed primary education should be extended this facility up to 8th standard.
- And above criteria should be extended to further education at higher level such as 50 percent top students at 8th students should be extended this facility up to 10th standard and so on.
This will be a more holistic model and will be able to provide education to more children of reserved categories without further creating a divided society among schedule caste, schedule tribes and OBCs.